Friday, November 14, 2014

Motorcycles in the Magic City - as Seen through the lens of O.V. Hunt - Press Release # 4

Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum - Birmingham, Alabama
Wekipedia Commons
In 2014, the Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum in Birmingham, Alabama received a Guinness World Record Certification as the largest collection of vintage motorcycles in the world. There are some 600 motorcycles, of a total collection of 1200, on currently on display at any on time. The museum is a must do for all motorcycle serious enthusiasts.

The museum has published several of my episodes on early Birmingham motorcycle events, and personalities in their membership newsletter Vintage Inside News. A few months back, I was asked to consult with Brian Slark, and Kelly Stewart, of the Museum Staff on their new exhibition Motorcycles in the Magic City - as Seen through the lens of O.V. Hunt.

O.V. Hunt was an early Birmingham photographer, who took many early iconic photographs of Birmingham landmarks. He was also an early motorcycle enthusiast, and a close friend of the Birmingham Indian dealer Robert Stubbs.

Motorcycles in the Magic City - as Seen through the lens of O.V. Hunt
Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum Collection

Barber Museum's O.V. Hunt exhibit features photographs of early motorcycle competition events, as well as various motorcycling personalities of the time. I have over the last few years been able identify many of the people in these photographs. Working together, we were able to caption the events, and identify many of the people featured in the exhibits photos.  The Museum was nice enough to acknowledge my contribution to the exhibit. It is a great honor to have played a small part in this important exhibit on Birmingham's early motorcyclists.

Motorcycles in the Magic City - as Seen through the lens of O.V. Hunt
Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum Collection
I have been invited to assist in a presentation on the new exhibit for museum members, sponsors, and the general public: Here is then Barber Museum Press Release of the event:

"Motorcycles in the Magic City"

Join us on Wednesday, December 3rd, from 6:30 - 7:30 PM, for the first of two events on "Motorcycles in the Magic City." Curator of the O.V. Hunt exhibit, Kelly Stewart, and museum consultant David Morrill will discuss how and why motorcycles played such an important role in people's lives and livelihoods in the Magic City a century ago, as seen in the images captured by Hunt in the early 1900s. 

Be on the lookout for information about our next "Motorcycles in the Magic City" event, which will take place on January 21st, 6:30 - 7:30pm, and will feature Motus Motorcycles. 

Both these events are free for museum members and volunteers, and $25 (per event) for non-members. To purchase tickets or RSVP, visit the Barber Museum or call 205.702.8713.

It is a great honor to have played a small part in this important exhibit on Birmingham's early motorcyclists.  For more information on the career of O.V. Hunt, check out O.V. Hunt -Birmingham's Photographer Episode #25:

Thursday, October 23, 2014

History Repeats Itself in Birmingham - Episode #28

Updated: October 28, 2014

By: David L. Morrill

On October 5th, 1914, a little known event in early Harley-Davidson racing history took place in sleepy little Birmingham, Alabama. Along with Atlanta, Georgia, Birmingham had become a center of professional motorcycle racing in the South. The motorcycle races on the one mile dirt oval track at the Alabama State Fairgrounds  in west Birmingham drew large crowds, that came to see top riders from around the country.

Leslie, "Red" Parkhurst was Harley-Davidson's first factory rider, and came to town to compete in the One Hour F.A.M. National Championship Race at the Fairgrounds.  The race was meant to be another test of the newly introduced Harley-Davidson 11-K "Stripped Stock" racer. The bike had been introduced at the Dodge City 300 Mile Race on July 4th, but had not fared well. At the end of the 300 mile ordeal, only two of the five factory bikes were still running, and they were not in contention.

Harley-Davidson took a much lower key approach to the Birmingham race, sending just Red Parkhurst from the factory team. They also provided semi retired racer Arthur Mitchell, who was now living in Birmingham, with a bike for the race through the new Birmingham Harley-Davidson dealer William Specht Jr.

Alabama State Fairgrounds Raceway - Birmingham, Alabama
O.V. Hunt - October 1914

As the green flag dropped that day, Parkhurst's chief competition came from Excelsior rider Joe Wolters, and local Indian rider Gene Walker. To the thrill of the Birmingham crowd, Walker led the first couple of laps, and set a new track record.  In the end though, Parkhurst overcame his competition, and led by a comfortable margin at the end of the race. Joe Wolters finished second, and Walker came in third.

After the race, two protests were filed with the F.A.M. referee by the Excelsior, and Indian teams.  The results were not confirmed until the following week, at the Chicago Motorcycle Show. when Parkhurst was presented the Birmingham trophy, along with his prize money at the Chicago Show.  Shortly after the awards ceremony, an 11-K racer was rolled out the Harley-Davidson display, along with a billboard touting the Birmingham win.

Leslie "Red" Parkhurst
Bicycling World and Motorcycle Review - October 1914
Red Parhurst's 1914 win at Birmingham went down as Harley-Davidson's first race win in a National Championship event, and played a major part in Harley-Davidson's advertising program for the upcoming 1915 model.

1915 Harley-Davidson Ad
Fast forward one hundred years, and just a few miles east of the old Fairgrounds Raceway, to the Barber Motorsports Park.  In October each year, the Park holds the Barber Vintage Motorcycle Festival. Over the past ten years the Vintage Motorcycle Festival has become one of the premier vintage motorcycle events in the country, and the Century Race for 100 year old motorcycles, is highly anticipated.

Joe "Slojo" Gardella has won the race several times on Harley-Davidsons he rebuilt by hand. Joe is and incredibly talented machinist/fabricator, and has competed in several of the cross county Motorcycle Cannonball Runs for antique motorcycles on his restored Harley-Davidsons. He is always a serious contender in the Century Race, having won the event several times.

Start of the 2014 Barber Vintage Motorcycle Festival Century Race
 Jim Dohms - Dohms Creative Photography

When the green flag dropped on this years Century Race on Saturday October 11th, Joe Gardella jumped to the lead, and maintained that led the race wire to wire. His immaculately prepared 1914 Harley-Davidson, known as the "Gray Ghost" didn't miss a beat. As Joe crossed the finish line, I couldn't help but think back to Red Pankhurst's 1914 win in Birmingham one hundred years before. well done Joe!

Slow Joe Gardella and The Gray Ghost - Barber Vintage Fest 2014
 Jim Dohms - Dohms Creative Photography
It seems some moments in motorsports are just meant to be. Surely Red was smiling down on Joe that day, as once again Harley-Davidson was victorious at Birmingham.

Joe Gardella, along with a group of 2014 Motorcycle Cannonball Event Riders, also participated in the Parade Lap of bikes and riders from the 2014 event.


A special thank you to the staff, and volunteers of the Barber Motorsports Park and the Barber Vintage Motorsport Museum for hosting this event. Also, a big thank you to my friends David Lloyd, and the folks at the Confederate Chapter of the Antique Motorcycle Club of America for organizing this event, and to my friends Jim Dohms of Dohms Creative Photography, and Rebecca Cunningham of Running Rabbit Films for sharing their incredible talents.


Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum

Bicycling World and Motorcycle Review

Confederate Chapter - Antique Motorcycle Club of America

David Lloyd 

Jim Dohms - Dohms Creative Photography

O.V. Hunt

Rebecca Cunningham - Running Rabbit Films

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Orlando's Star Lite Riders - Episode #27

By: David L. Morrill

Updated: September 12, 12014

I've said before, that many of my stories begin with a single photograph. That's the case with this story. I was scrolling through Facebook one morning, and came across a post by Dennis Adams, in an Orlando, Florida look back group. It was a photo of the old Puckett Harley-Davidson dealership on South Orange Blossom Trail in Orlando. The photo showed some kind of awards ceremony. I contacted Dennis to get permission to use the photo in my story on Orlando racer Dexter Campbell.

Not only did Dennis Adams give me permission to use his photo, he also shared the story of his parents, Charlie and Aladra Adams, who were members of the Star Lite Motorcycle Club in the 40s, and 50s. Dennis also arranged for me to contact his father, who along with Jesse O'Brien, provided the details for this story. Without their held, it would have not  been possible.

Aladra Adam's Star Lite Riders Shirt
Charlie and Aladra Adams Collection

The story if the Star Lite Riders Motorcycle Club, begins with groups civilian motorcycle riders formed into Motorcycle Troops in the early 1940s. It was anticipated that if the United States became involved in the second World War, these troops would be an invaluable asset in patrolling Florida's long coastline. The American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) supported, and encouraged, the formation of the Motorcycle Troops, as a way to bring a positive image of motorcycling.

In Orlando, Florida Sidney Crenshaw formed the Orlando Troop. With the entry of the United States into the World War at the end of 1941, many of the male troop members were drafted into the service. Many used their riding skills as dispatch riders for the various armed services. Some of the female troop members continued the troop activities, until they were drawn into jobs producing war materials, and the civilian motorcycle troops folded.

Sidney Crenshaw - Orlando, Florida
Guy Ann Sheffield Collection

After World War II, Sidney Crenshaw, who was now a member of the Orlando Police Department Motorcycle Unit, was involved in the formation of the Orlando Motorcycle Club, along with Orlando Harley-Davidson dealer Lewis Puckett. The club was run out of Puckett's shop on South Orange Avenue in Orlando. Charlie Adams became one of the original members of the Orlando Motorcycle Club.

Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection
Charlie Adams began racing in AMA sanctioned flat track, and TT motorcycle races on a Harley-Davidson WR carrying his competition A.M.A. # 211C. The WR was prepared in Lewis Puckett's shop. He competed in races at St Petersburg, Sarasota, Ft Meyers, Ft. Lauderdale, Orlando, and Daytona Beach, Florida. While Charlie did not win any races, he often finished second, or third.

1948 Harley-Davidson WR Flat Track Racer 

By early 1948, the membership of the Orlando Motorcycle Club had dropped significantly. A new club was formed named the Star Lite Riders, and several of the Orlando Motorcycle Club Members, including Charlie and Aladra Adams joined the new club.

Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection
The new club received and AMA sanction, and was run out of Lewis Puckett's Harley-Davidson shop, which had moved to 2801 South orange Blossom Trail in Orlando.

Puckett Motors - Orlando, Florida
Eric Smith Collection
The AMA sanctioned these riding clubs, which often adopted club uniforms, which the wore during rides, and club social events. These were not 1% motorcycle gangs, which drew negative publicity to the sport, with their antisocial behavior. They were groups of average riders, often referred to as the 99% of motorcycle enthusiasts , who didn't cause problems. These riding clubs participated in reliability runs, field games, social events, Promoted safe riding, and sponsored A.M.A. competition events.

Star Lite Riders relax after their weekly Reliability Run
Star Light Riders Motorcycle Field Games
Star Lite Riders Field Games
Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection
The Star Lite Riders sponsored the local flat track and TT motorcycle races. These races where first held at the Casselberry, Florida harness track, and later at Orlando's Ben White Raceway. Charlie Adams competed in,  and often won, these local races.

Charlie Adams shows off a trophy to Aladra Adams and a friend.
Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection

In the early 50s, Charlie Adams was elected as president of the Star Lite Riders. This was a little unusual, as the club was run out of a Harley-Davidson shop, and Charlie had switched to riding a 1953 Indian, along with a 250cc Zundap he rode in enduro racing. Club members were not required to ride Harley-Davidsons, and Charlie like the new hydraulic forks, and non pogo post seat. This was the final model of the Indian Motorcycle, as they closed the factory doors in 1953.

Charlie, Randy, and Sandra Adams - 1953 Indian Motorcycle
Charlie & Aladra Adams
The July 1955 edition of American Motorcycling Magazine featured an article on 17 year old club member Clyde Denzer.

American Motorcycling Magazine - July 1955
Dave Dobner Collection
In June 1956, the Star Lite Riders were awarded an A.M.A. National Safety Award banner, for the year 1955. The award was presented to club members by Orlando Chief of Police, Vernon Rodgers.

Orlando Sentinel - June 1956
Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection

And now for the story of the photograph that inspired this story:

Puckett Harley-Davidson Orlando, Florida ca. 1955
Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection

This photo shows and awards ceremony at Pickett Harley-Davidson for the Thanksgiving Turkey Run Enduro Race, which was sponsored by the Star Lite Riders.  These cross country races, were meant to test the endurance of man and machine, by riding a difficult closed course laid out through the woods outside Daytona Beach, Florida.

Jesse O'Brien stated he is the person receiving his first place trophy from Lewis Puckett's son Buddy. Lewis Puckett is crouched in the center of the photo, and Charlie, and Aladra Adams are in the back left of the photo.

Unidentified Enduro Rider
Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection

But, there's more to this story! It seems the prize for the race was a live turkey,. Jesse received the turkey for his win, and took it to his brother Dick's house for the family Thanksgiving dinner. Dick's wife took the turkey outside to prepare it for cooking. The turkey took one look at the knife, and escaped the scene. The turkey was last seen running down Orange Blossom Trail, and Dick had to drive down to Winn Dixie to get another turkey.

The annual Daytona Beach Motorcycle Races were known as the Handlebar Derby.  The premier event was the 200 mile road race. It was run down a section of Ormond Beach, at low tide, and then back up Highway A1A.

1958 Daytona Motorcycle Race Program Cover
Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection

The week long event featured both amateur, and professional Road Racing, Flat Track, Scrambles, Hill Climb, Drag Racing, Time Trials, and Endurance Run competitions. There was also an International Motorcycle Show at the Daytona Beach Armory.

1957 Daytona 200 Motorcycle Race
Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection

By 1958, the Star Lite Riders were sponsoring Formula A motorcycle scrambles races. Dick O'Brien, the shop Racing Manger, had developed hop up parts for the Harley-Davidson 165, which had become popular with lightweight class scrambles racers. Puckett had two riders, Jesse O'Brien, and Dexter Campbell racing the shops 165s, and they dominated races throughout Florida. Tommy Seagraves raced for Puckett in the Heavy Weight Scrambles Class.

Lewis Puckett Motors Hop Up Instructions
The October 1958 edition of the A.M.A.s American Motorcyclist Magazine reported a crowd of 3000 watched the August Formula A Scrambles race held in Orlando, by the Star Lite Riders. Dexter Campbell won the Lightweight Class, and Tommy Seagraves, won the Heavy Weight Class.

In November 1958, Charlie Adams competed in the Turkey Run Enduro, finishing second in the Class B Lightweight on his 250cc Zundap.

1958 Turkey Run Enduro Results
Charlie & Aladra Adams
Club members also competed in unsanctioned Outlaw motorcycle races run by Bill France during the Nascar races held on the same Ormond Beach Course used for the motorcycle races. These races were held on the beach side of the course, to entertain the crowd between the Nascar races.

About this time, the Star Lite Riders became involved in another interesting piece of Florida racing history. Puckett Harley-Davidson, and the Star Lite Riders, sponsored motorcycle drag races on an old auxiliary airfield south of Orlando. Lewis Puckett was asked by an up and coming Ocala, Florida auto drag racer Don Garlits.  He was making a name for himself drag racing a modified T Bucket Ford, and asked Lewis Puckett to build a Harley-Davidson to race against his T Bucket Ford.

Don Garlits 1927 Ford T Bucket Racer
Don Garlits Collection

The crew at Puckett's race shop built a 74 ci. twin carburetor Harley-Davidson Panhead, which was named Big Bertha.

Custom Bike & Choppers Magazine - March 1982
The bike was ridden in several match races with Garlits, by Charlie Winslow, and later Dexter Campbell. The Puckett riders, and Garlits, each won several of the match races.

It appears the membership of the Star Lite Riders faded in the early 60s. Many of the members now had families, and careers, which left less time for riding. The final blow, may have come, when Lewis Puckett lost the Harley-Davidson franchise for Orlando, and the Star Lite riders lost their clubhouse.

The A.M.A. sanctioned riding clubs across the country began to suffer the same fate. As these clubs faded into memories, the more notorious motorcycle gangs were left to take their place, casting a negative light on the sport through the 60s and 70s.


Charlie and Aladra Adams eventually divorced. Charlie Adams later remarried, and left Orlando in 1967. He had a long career in the music business, is retired, and living in Tennessee. Aladra Adams passed away in Orlando in 2011.

Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection

Dexter Campbell continued his racing career, but was killed in a racing accident at the A.M.A. National Dirt Track Race at Atlanta's Lakewood Speedway on May 15, 1966.

#16 Dexter Campbell
Robbie Knight Collection
Clyde Denzer was hired by Harley-Davidson Racing Team Manager, Dick O'Brien in 1959. For the next 24 years, Denzer served as the the number two man in the Racing Department . When O'Brien retired, Clyde Denzer took over as the Harley-Davidson Racing Team Manager.

Clyde Denzer (left) and Ralph White - Daytona 1963 
Dick O'Brien left Puckett Harley-Davidson in 1957 to become the Harley-Davidson Factory Racing Team Manager. Under O'Brien's management, the Harley Racing Team became one of the most successful racing teams in the country, vitally dominating American dirt track racing. He Retired in 1983, and was inducted into the American Motorcyclist Association's Hall of Fame in 2001.

Dick O'Brien
A.M.A. Hall of Fame

Jesse O'Brien  retired from racing in 1957. In the early 80s he returned, and one of the driving forces behind the A.M.A. Battle of the Twins road racing class.

Jesse O'Brien (right)
Patrolman Sidney "Big Sid" Crenshaw had a distinguished career with the Orlando Police department Motorcycle Unit. He was struck by a car, and seriously injured, while working a traffic accident on West Colonial Drive in Orlando on July 7, 1965. Patrolman Creshaw died of his injuries on November 22, 1966.

Patrolman Sidney "Big Sid" Crenshaw
Guy Ann Sheffield Collection

"Big Daddy" Don Garlits went on to become a multi time National, and World Championship drag racer. He won a total of 144 National events in his series of "Swamp Rat" Top Fuel racers. He currently operates the Don Garlits Museum of Drag Racing in Ocala, Florida.

"Big Daddy" Don Garlits - Ocala, Florida
Tommy Seagraves continued his racing career, but was killed in a racing accident at the A.M.A. National Road Race in Watkin's Glen, New York on August 14, 1960.

Tommy Seagraves - Orlando, Florida
Eddie Boomhower Collection


American Motorcyclist Association

Charlie Adams

Charlie & Aladra Adams Collection

Custom Bike & Choppers Magazine - March 1982

Dave Dobner Collection

Dennis Adams

Don Garlits Museum of Drag Racing

Eddie Boomhower Collection

Guy Ann Sheffield Collection

Jesse O'Brien

Officer Down Memorial Page - Patrolman Sidney Crenshaw

Robbie Knight Collection

Tampa Bay History 21/01 - Civilians Protecting Civilians - 2007

Friday, August 1, 2014

Indy's First Race - Episode #26

By: David L. Morrill

Updated: August 17, 2014

I've had a fascination with the Indianapolis Motor Speedway since my childhood. I remember taking a Sunday family ride in 1964, and listening to descriptions of the horrendous crash in the 500 Mile Race on our car radio. I have never made it to the Speedway in person, but rarely miss the 500 Mile Classic on television. Indy race fans know the Speedway opened in 1909, but few know the first event held there was a motorcycle race. Time to share this little known piece of early motorcycling history.

Indian Motorycle Club France Collection

In early 1909, construction began on a racetrack in Indianapolis, Indiana. The 2 mile oval track was surfaced with gravel and tar.

Chicago, IL. Tribune - January 24, 1909

By mid 1909, arrangements had been completed between the Federation of American Motorcyclists  (F.A.M.), and the management of the newly completed Indianapolis Motor Speedway for a National Championship Motorcycle race to be held on August 13 & 14, 1909. Wire service articles about the planned races began to appear in newspapers across the country. The motorcycle races would be followed one week later by Championship Automobile Races at the Speedway. President William Howard Taft was scheduled to  take part in the opening ceremonies for the Speedway's automobile races.

Bakersfield, CA. Californian - August 14, 1909
Harrisburg, PA. Courier - July 25, 1909

Indianapolis, IN. News - July 30, 1909

Indianapolis, IN. News _ August 9, 1909
The races would coincide with the F.A.M.'s annual convention, which was also to held in Indianapolis. An August 10th article in the Indianapolis News, announced that entries for the race were closed, and that "Leading Riders of the World Will Compete." The article also went on to state that "riders had tested the track" and that "records will be smashed."

Indianapolis News - August 10, 1909
On August 11th, an unflattering cartoon, which appeared to mock the races, appeared on the front page of the Indianapolis News.

Indianapolis News - August 11, 1909

That same day, a more positive wire service article about the races appeared in papers across the country. It gave details of the races being run during the two day event, along with information on the convention, and details about the Speedway.

Warren, PA. Times Mirror - August 11, 1909

On the morning of the 13th, rain fell, and the races were postponed to the following day.

Indianapolis News - August 13, 1909
There were already concerns that the rush to complete the track's surface, prior to the scheduled races, had resulted in a racing surface that had not been properly laid. Many of the 32 race competitors entered began to complain the track surface had not been properly rolled for smoothness, was both rough and dangerous for the riders.

Indianapolis Motor Speedway - August 1909
Ramin Faz Collection
The events of the August 14 motorcycle races held at the Speedway are documented in a two page article that appeared in the August 14, 1909 edition of Bicycling World and Motorcycle Review. The article appeared under a lengthy headline, that began with:

 "Strike" precedes F.A. M. Race Meet and Program is Cut Short. Motor Speedway Proves Big Disappointment.

The entire text of that article is too lengthy to be presented, but can be read at the link below:

                          Bicycling World and Motorcycle Review August 14, 1909

Controversy started after an amateur rider J. S. Tomey crashed, at the beginning of the 10 Mile Amateur National Championship race. Tomey was not seriously injured, but was forced to drop out the the race.

Things came to a head, when professional rider, Jake DeRosier, crashed heavily. DeRosier's crash, was said to have been caused when the rough track surface ripped his front tire off the rim. DeRosier was traveling at over a mile a minute, and his injuries were appeared very serious. Word spread through the competitors, that DeRosier's injuries might be fatal. This was the final blow, which forced the rider's into action.

Wichita, KS. Daily Eagle August 15, 1909
The riders gathered and began to talk of a strike, to shut down the races. All but two of the thirty riders in the event voted to strike. However, the strike failed to materialize. The F.A.M. Official in charge of the meet stated any rider, who did not compete would be suspended from competition for sixty days.

The threat of suspension, along with word from the Speedway Hospital, that DeRozier's injuries were not serious, put an end to the threatened strike. Many of the top riders entered in the days races, did not appear to have their hearts in the competition. Spectators, and the press,  thought they were just riding around at less than full speed.

The Ten Mile National Amateur Championship Race had been postponed after J.S. Tomey's crash. When the race resumed, without Tomey, Indianapolis rider Erwin Baker took an easy win on his Indian. Baker's win in the 10 Mile national Amateur Championship Race got nationwide coverage, eclipsing the winners of both the professional race, and the other amateur classes.

Indianapolis News - July 13, 1909
The race results went out in a wire service article to newspapers around the country. That night, F.A.M. Officials met, and cancelled the remaining races scheduled for August 15th.

Washington, DC. Post - August 15, 1909

Erwin Baker, became a top competitor in professional motorcycle competitions across the country. In 1914, he set an endurance record crossing the country in eleven days on his Indian Motorcycle. That record earned him a new nickname, and he would be known "Cannonball" Baker for the remainder of his life.

Erwin George "Cannon Ball" Baker - Indianapolis, Indiana
Jake DeRosier recovered from his injuries, and went on to be hired as a factory rider for Indian Motorcycles. In 1911, he set a new World Speed Record at Brooklands in England. He died in 1913, as the result of racing injuries.

Jacob "Jake" DeRosier 1880-1913
Daniel Statnekov Collection

The following weekend, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway held it's first automobile races. The poor track surface is said to have contributed to two fatal crashes during that event.

In 1910, the track was repaved with bricks, giving it a length of 2.5 miles. The first Indianapolis 500 Mile race was held in May 1911. In 1922, one of the entrants in the 500 mile race was one "Cannon Ball" Baker, who finished 11th.

In September 2008, ninety nine years after the 1909 F.A.M. Championship Races, top motorcycle riders from around the world once again gathered at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway to compete in the Moto GP World Championship Races.


Bakersfield Californian - Bakersfield, CA.

Harrisburg Courier - Harrisburg, PA.

Indian Motocycle Club France Collection - Indian Motocycles Club of France on Facebook

Indianapolis News - Indianapolis, IN.

Smithsonian Library - Bicycling World and Motorcycle Review - August 14, 1909

Daniel Statnekov - Pioneers of American Motorcycle Racing

Warren Times Mirror - Warren, PA.

Washington Post - Washington, DC.

Wichita Daily Eagle - Wichita, KS.